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Metacognition is knowledge of one’s own cognitive and affective processes and the ability to deliberately monitor and regulate these processes (Flavell, 1976; Hacker, 1998). Simply put, metacognition is ”thinking about your own thinking.” Students should be aware of their own thinking and learning processes they use while engaged in learning activities.

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CIE Connection

Chess instruction and chess play encourage analysis of one’s thinking in creating successful offensive strategies and preparing effective responses to the moves of opponents.  Because chess provides an almost infinite array of moves and countermoves, metacognition opportunities are elevated.
Opportunities for teachers to guide affective reflection arise as children experience the emotions involved in learning a new skill, facing competition in play, and dealing with the experiences of winning and losing.


Continuum of Metacognition

See the literature below for information about the age at which students are developmentally ready for metacognitive guidance.

Further Reading:
Fisher, R. (1998).  Thinking about thinking: Developing metacognition in children. In Early Child Development and Care, 141, 1-15.
Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive Aspects of Problem Solving. _In L. B. Resnick (Ed.) The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Hacker, D. J. (1998). Metacognition in educational theory and practice: The Educational Psychology Series, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Paul, R. (2012). Critical thinking: what every person needs to survive a rapidly changing world. Tomales, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
Sternberg, R. J., and Swerling, L. S. (1996). Teaching for Thinking. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Orchid Center. What does Metacognition Have to do with Executive Functions.
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